02 Feb 2018, 21:40

OpenWRT Geofencing

Geofencing refers to allowing or blocking a connection based on country of origin. Unfortunately, OpenWRT / LEDE does not support geofencing out of the box.

The way I’ve worked around this is described below.

Shell script

I created a shell script /root/bin/ipset-update.sh to pull Maxmind Geolite2 database periodically, and use that to populate an ipset set which I can then reference from iptables.

The shell script is based on this one with a few tweaks for Openwrt: change bash to ash and change the paths of some of the utilities ipset, curl etc

The shell script takes 2 arguments: the ipset name to create/update, and the country name to pull out of the Geolite database.

If I call it like this: /root/bin/ipset-update.sh australia Australia then the resulting ipsets are australia4 and australia6 (ipv4 + ipv6 respectively)


The Maxmind database changes over time as, so it’s important to update it on a periodic basis. I installed a cronjob as root user to run the script once per week:

0 0 * * sun     /root/bin/ipset-update.sh australia Australia


From the command line, you can use the new ipset like so:

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m set --match-set australia4 src -j ACCEPT
ip6tables -A INPUT -p tcp -m tcp --dport 22 -m set --match-set australia6 src -j ACCEPT

I prefer to use the Luci interface for configuring the firewall. While it doesn’t support setting an ipset target directly it does allow you to specify arbitrary iptables switches. When creating a port forwarding or traffic rule that requires geofencing, I put the following in the Extra arguments: section: -m set --match-set australia4 src.

As the interface only allows one ipset to be specified per rule, you can either create multiple rules for multiple countries, or create one ipset that combines multiple countries into a group.

Survive reboot

At boot time rules that use ipsets will fail to load as the ipsets will not exist at that point. To work around that I put the following lines into the /etc/rc.local:

/root/bin/ipset-update.sh australia Australia
/etc/init.d/firewall restart

10 May 2017, 21:40

Building LEDE / Openwrt for x86

EDIT: 2018-03-12, LEDE and Openwrt have merged. References to LEDE here can be substituted for Openwrt.

I had a need to run LEDE on x86 hardware. Building a custom LEDE seemed a bit daunting at first, but turned out to be quite straight forward. The build described here is tailored for Qotom J1900 mini PC.

Building the custom image

I chose to build the LEDE x86_64 image within a Docker container like so:

$ docker pull centos
$ docker run -it centos /bin/bash
<container>$ cd root/
<container>$ yum install wget make gcc openssl which xz perl zlib-static ncurses-devel perl-Thread-Queue.noarch gcc-c++ git file unzip bzip2
<container>$ wget https://downloads.lede-project.org/releases/17.01.1/targets/x86/64/lede-imagebuilder-17.01.1-x86-64.Linux-x86_64.tar.xz
<container>$ tar -xvJf lede-imagebuilder-17.01.1-x86-64.Linux-x86_64.tar.xz
<container>$ cd lede-imagebuilder-17.01.1-x86-64.Linux-x86_64

Build the image. I want USB keyboard support, and don’t need e1000 or realtek drivers

 make image packages="-kmod-e1000e -kmod-e1000 -kmod-r8169 kmod-usb-hid kmod-usb3 kmod-usb2"

The new images are located under ./bin/targets/x86/64 inside the build environment

# ls -l bin/x86/64
total 35852
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  5587318 May  9 20:36 lede-17.01.1-x86-64-combined-ext4.img.gz
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root 19466174 May  9 20:36 lede-17.01.1-x86-64-combined-squashfs.img
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  2439806 May  9 20:36 lede-17.01.1-x86-64-generic-rootfs.tar.gz
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root     1968 May  9 20:36 lede-17.01.1-x86-64-generic.manifest
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  2711691 May  9 20:36 lede-17.01.1-x86-64-rootfs-ext4.img.gz
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root  2164670 May  9 20:36 lede-17.01.1-x86-64-rootfs-squashfs.img
-rw-r--r--. 1  106  111  2620880 Apr 17 17:53 lede-17.01.1-x86-64-vmlinuz
-rw-r--r--. 1 root root      731 May  9 20:36 sha256sums

Just need the combined-ext4 image. Copy that out from the docker container to USB flash drive:

$ docker cp <container id>:/root/lede-imagebuilder-17.01.1-x86-64.Linux-x86_64/bin/targets/x86/64/lede-17.01.1-x86-64-combined-ext4.img.gz /mnt

Installing the custom image

  • boot the mini PC using any Linux rescue disk. (I used SystemRescueCD)
  • insert a second USB flash disk containing the image created above
  • write the image to the mini PC internal drive:
$ mount /dev/sdc1 /mnt; cd /mnt
$ gunzip lede-17.01.1-x86-64-combined-ext4.img.gz
$ dd if=lede-17.01.1-x86-64-combined-ext4.img.gz of=/dev/sda
  • (optionally) resize the LEDE data partition to fill the entire size of the internal storage
    • use fdisk/parted to remove second partition (/dev/sda2)
    • re-add second partition with the same starting block as before, but make the end block the last block on the disk
    • save the new partition table
    • run e2fsck -f /dev/sda2 followed by resize2fs /dev/sda2
  • reboot the device
  • access the console via VGA console, or telnet to IP (no root password!)